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ip addressing tutorial

SpiderTip
SpiderTip
Posted: 2009-06-20

An IP (Internet Protocol) Address is 32 bit unique numeric number assigned to a computer or device connected to public or private network. Network communications are established using Network Protocols and the most popular Network Protocol is TCP/IP. All TCP/IP network devices communicate based on unique IP address assigned to each device on the network. As a binary number, IP address looks like this; 11100000101010000000000111111110. We take this 32 bit number and put into set of 8 bits separated by dot or period to make a byte like this (11100000.10101000.00000001.11111110) and convert into dotted decimal format which translates into this; 192.168.1.254. Every device on any network is assigned to unique IP address to communicate with the other devices on the same network. Public or Internet IP address is typically assigned to a computer by an ISP (Internet Service Provider) and is unique throughout the Public Network (Internet). Private Network IP address is typically assigned to a device by a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Server or router. An IP address consists of two sections, a network section and host section. A network sections defines the network it self and the host sections defines the device it self as unique object on the network. For example; an IP address 192.168.1.100 is classified as Class C IP address, 192.168.1 is the network portion of the IP address and the 100 is the host portion of the IP address.
IP Addressing Classifications
IP address classified or divided into 5 groups; Class A, B, C, D, and E. IP address classifications A, B, and C are often used. Class D and class E are used for special purposes. In each IP address class, number of bits is split between the host and the network. Class A has 8 bits of Network and 24 bits of host. Gives you ability to create 126 large sized networks and 16,777,214 hosts on each network. The first bit of Class A IP address binary number is always 0. Since first bit of Class A is 0, the first 8 bits IP address can range from 00000000 to 01111111, which gives you 0 to 127 possible decimal numbers. The first decimal 0 and the last decimal 127 are reserved numbers (0-broadcast, 127-Loopback) that leaves you 1-126 possible decimal numbers so we can say the first byte (octet) of Class A IP address can ranged from 1 to 126 inclusive. Class B has 16 bits of Network and 16 bits of host. Gives you ability to create 16,384 mid sized networks and 65,534 hosts on each network. The first 2 bits of Class B IP address binary number are always 10. Since first two bits of Class B are 10, the first 8 bits of the IP address can range from 10000000 to 10111111, which gives you 128 to 191 possible decimal numbers so can we say first byte (octet) of Class B IP address can range from 128 to 191 inclusive. Class C has 24 bits of Network and 8 bits of host. Gives you ability to create 2,097,152 small sized networks and 254 hosts on each network. The first 3 bits of Class C IP address binary number are always 110. Since first three bits of Class C are 110, the first Octet of the IP address can range from 11000000 to 11011111, which gives you 192 to 223 possible decimal numbers so can say the first Octet of Class C IP address can range from 192 to 223 inclusive. Class D has 28 bits multicast IP address. The first 4 bits of Class D IP address binary number are always 1110. Since first four bits of Class D are 1110, the first Octet of the IP address can range from 11100000 to 11101111, which gives you 224 to 229 possible decimal numbers so can say the first Octet of Class D IP address can range from 224 to 239 inclusive. You can now identify what Class IP address is by looking at first Octet of the IP address, Class A IP address must starts 1-126 range, Class B IP address must starts 128-191 range, Class C IP address must starts 192-223, and Class D IP address starts 224-239 range and Class E starts 240-255 range. Note: lookup next article which explains subnet mask

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